Majapahit Kingdom

Majapahit was an ancient kingdom in Indonesia that had stood from 1293 until around the year 1500 AD This kingdom reached the peak of its power during the reign of Hayam Wuruk, who ruled from 1350 until 1389.

Kingdom of Majapahit was the last Hindu-Buddhist kingdom that controls the Malay Peninsula and is considered as one of the greatest country in the history of Indonesia.Kekuasaannya lies in Java, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaya, Borneo, the Sulu Archipelago, Manila (Saludung), up to eastern Indonesia, although the region power is still debated.


There is little physical evidence remains of Majapahit, and its history is not the main jelas.Sumber used by historians is Pararaton ('Book of Kings') in the Kawi language and Java language Nagarakertagama Kuno.Pararaton especially telling Ken Arok (the founder of Singhasari) but includes several short sections on the formation of Majapahit. Nagarakertagama, is a poem written in Old Javanese Majapahit golden age under the reign of Hayam Wuruk. After that, the thing that happens is not clear. In addition, there are some inscriptions in the ancient Javanese language and historical records from China and other countries.

The accuracy of all the Java-language manuscript is disputed. There is no denying that the resources they contain elements and non-historical myth. Some scholars like C.C. Berg considers all manuscripts are not a record of the past, but have meaning in terms of the supernatural can know the future. However, most scholars assume that the outline of these sources can be accepted as consistent with historical records from China, particularly list of rulers and the state of the kingdom that looks pretty certain.

After Singhasari expel Sriwijaya from Java as a whole in the year 1290, Singhasari become the most powerful empire in the region. This has become the attention of Kublai Khan, ruler of the Yuan Dynasty in China. He sent an envoy named Meng Chi to Singhasari who demanded tribute. Kertanagara, the last ruler Singashari refused to pay tribute and shaming these messengers by destroying his face and cut off his ear. Kublai Khan was angry and then dispatch a large expedition to Java in 1293.

At that time, Jayakatwang, duke of Kediri, was killed Kertanagara. On the advice of Aria Wiraraja, Jayakatwang give clemency to Raden Wijaya, Kertanegara-law, who came to surrender. Raden Wijaya then given the woods Pull. He opened the forest and build a new village. The village was named Majapahit, whose name is taken from the fruit of a teenager, and a sense of "bitterness" of the fruit. When the Mongol army arrived Wijaya allied with the Mongol army to fight Jayakatwang. Raden Wijaya Mongolnya ally turns against forcing them withdraw from a chaotic because they are in foreign territory. It was also their last chance to catch the monsoon winds to be able to go home, or they would have had to wait another six months on a foreign island.

The exact date of which is used as date of birth of the Majapahit empire, Raden Wijaya was the day of coronation as king, that on November 10, 1293. He was crowned with the official name Kertarajasa Jayawardhana. The kingdom was facing problems. Some people trusted Kertarajasa, including Ranggalawe, Sora, and Nambi rebelled against him, though the rebellion was not successful. Slamet Muljana mahapati Halayudha guess that was the conspiracy to overthrow all of the king, so he can reach the highest positions in government. However, after the death of the last rebel (Kuti), Halayudha arrested and jailed, and then sentenced to death. Wijaya died in 1309.

Son and successor Wijaya, Jayanegara, is the master of evil and immoral. He dubbed Gemet Kala, meaning "weak villain". In 1328, Jayanegara killed by tabibnya, Tanca. His stepmother, Gayatri Rajapatni supposed to replace, but Rajapatni chose to resign from the palace and become a priestess. Rajapatni pointed Tribhuwana Wijayatunggadewi daughter to become queen of Majapahit. During the reign Tribhuwana, Majapahit kingdom grew into larger and more famous in the area. Majapahit Tribhuwana mastered until her death in 1350. He was succeeded by his son, Hayam Wuruk.

Majapahit Territory
Hayam Wuruk, also known as Rajasanagara, ruled Majapahit in 1350 until 1389. At the time of Majapahit reached the peak of its power with the help mahapatihnya, Gajah Mada. Under the command of Gajah Mada University (1313-1364), Majapahit control of more territory. In 1377, several years after the death of Gajah Mada, Majapahit attack by sea to Palembang, causing the collapse of the remnants of Sriwijaya.

According Nagarakertagama stanza XIII-XV, the Majapahit kingdom covering Sumatra, Malay Peninsula, Borneo, Sulawesi, Nusa Tenggara islands, Maluku, Papua, and some islands of the Philippines. However, natural and economic constraints showed that the areas of power does not seem to be under centralized power of Majapahit, but connected to one another by a trade that might be monopolized by the king. Majapahit also has a relationship with Campa, Cambodia, Siam, southern Burma, and Vietnam, and even send-dutanya ambassador to China.

The Fall of Majapahit
After reaching a peak in the 14th century, Majapahit kingdom was gradually weakening. There appears to be a civil war (War Paregreg) in 1405-1406, between Wirabhumi against Wikramawardhana. Similarly, there has been a fight about the turn of the king in the year 1450s, and the great rebellion waged by a nobleman in the year 1468.

In Javanese tradition there is a chronogram or candrasengkala which reads ilang kretaning earth vanished. This is said year Sengkala end of Majapahit and should be read as 0041, the year of Saka 1400, or 1478 AD. Sengkala meaning is "gone gone prosperity earth." However, the truth is illustrated by the deaths of Bre candrasengkala Kertabumi, the 11th king of Majapahit, by Girindrawardhana.
A ship model display at the Muzium Majapahit Countries, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

When Majapahit was founded, Muslim traders and the spreaders of religion had begun to enter the archipelago. In the late 14th century and early 15th century, the Majapahit influence throughout the archipelago began to decrease. At the same time, a new trading empire based on Islam, the Sultanate of Malacca, began to emerge in the western part of the archipelago.

Note the history of China, Portuguese (Tome Pires), and Italy (Pigafetta) indicates that there has been displacement of the Majapahit kingdom in the hands of Hindu rulers into the hands of the Duke of Unus, the ruler of the Sultanate of Demak, between the years 1518 and 1521 AD.

That snapshot of the state majapahit at its heyday, the next will be joined by leading figures behind the establishment of majapahit.
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